Rice false smut is a disease that damages the panicle of rice. It is a fungal disease that occurs in the late growth stage of rice. Some people call it the "grey package". In recent years, it has been widespread in various rice areas, and it has been increasing year by year. Has become one of the main diseases of rice. The symptoms are: there are usually one to several grains on one ear, and there are as many as a dozen or even dozens of cases on the ear. The inside and outside of the damaged ear granules first rupture, revealing a pale yellow mass, and the affected part gradually enlarges. It turns black and green, has a cracked shape, and emits a dark green powder. Rice false smut not only destroys the diseased grain, but also consumes the nutrition of the whole diseased ear, causing the other seeds to be not full. With the increase of the diseased grain, the openness rate increases significantly, and the 1000-grain weight decreases, resulting in a serious decline in rice quality. Rice false smut causes the rice grain weight to decrease, the yield to decrease, the glutinous rice and broken rice increase, and the rice yield and quality decrease.
1. Incidence conditions:
(1) The weather is closely related to the occurrence of rice false smut. If there are many rainy and high-humidity weathers, the occurrence of rice smut will be heavy.
(2) The quality of cultivation and management is also related to the severity of the disease. Excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer causes rice to be late and ripe, which will aggravate the occurrence of diseases, and the diseased ears and disease grains will increase accordingly.
(3) Seeds with more bacteria may have a serious onset.
2, prevention and treatment methods:
(l) Selection of high-yield and disease-resistant varieties: Generally speaking, scattered ear and early-maturing varieties have milder incidence; dense-ear type and late-maturing varieties have a heavier incidence.
(2) Select disease-free seeds and do seed treatment: 0.5 kg of quicklime and 50 kg of water before sowing, 30-35 kg of impregnated rice (combined with prevention and control of mite), soaking time is generally 15-20 Â°C For the next 3 days, the lime water should be higher than the rice seeds, so that the rice seeds are always submerged under the water layer.
(3) Removal of sick bodies: Early detection of diseased granules should be removed in time, and the heavily ill-fed fields should be deep-turned after harvesting, so that the sclerotia and the curved ball rot in the soil, and the field debris is cleaned before the spring sowing to reduce the bacterial source.
(4) Scientific and rational fertilization: In the field, fertilization should be based on farmyard manure and organic fertilizer, and NPK fertilizer should not be used too late.
(5) Chemical control: It is generally required to use the medicine twice, the first medicine is applied during the rice panicle break period, and the second medicine is applied at the heading stage. Optional 20% Jinggangmycin crystal powder for 25-50 grams; 25% rice koji WP powder for 40-60 grams; 20% powder rust WP for 75-100 grams; 50% fortune double 200 times Liquid; strive to spray droplets when using medicine, generally 40-50 kg per mu of water, to be used after dew and rain. Pay attention to the timely replenishment if it rains within 3-4 hours after the fight.
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